High-lying groundwater can create a lot of problems for land owners. The foundation of the house will be destroyed, constantly being in a humid environment. The soil will quickly become poorer, as the lighter humus will gradually be washed into the reservoirs, leaving heavy infertile clay. The orchard will gradually die from drought, despite the fact that the roots of the trees are constantly in the water, because the groundwater is cold, it does not warm up well even in hot summer and the absorption of cold moisture by the roots of the trees is extremely difficult. Soil saturated with water does not conduct air well and plants in it suffer from a lack of oxygen.
Many more examples of the harmful effects of high groundwater on buildings and plantations can be cited, but one thing is clear - it is necessary to reduce the level of soil moisture. The drainage device will help to solve this problem. How to make drainage at their summer cottage?
First you need to make sure that the problem really exists. Drainage system will be necessary in the following cases:
- The site is located on a steep slope. In case of heavy rains, the upper fertile soil layer will be eroded, if you do not dig through the transverse ditches for transporting precipitation to the storm sewers.
- The site is located in a lowland and all rain and melt water flows on it. In this case, you need to install drainage channels along the perimeter of the site.
- The site is located on a plain from which water does not drain, but is slowly absorbed. In spring and during periods of rain, it may protrude to the surface.
If there are no obvious signs of a high level of groundwater, you should still pay attention to whether the lawn does not vyperelyaet, trees are healthy. You can dig a small hole with a depth of 50-70 cm and check if there is water in it. It is also worth talking with the neighbors and find out the water level in the wells. If groundwater lies above one meter from the surface, drainage is likely to be needed.
What is drainage?
Drainage is a system of canals for the removal of high-standing groundwater. Properly installed, it can significantly reduce the level of moisture in the soil. As a result, you can save the orchard, keep the foundation dry, forget the problem of water in the cellar and its standing on the site in the spring.
Types of drainage
If you have already seen the need for a dewatering system, you need to decide which system will help solve this problem - surface or deep.
Surface drainage at the dacha is the easiest way to reduce the level of groundwater. It is designed to divert melt or rainwater and is a system of trenches dug around the perimeter under a slight slope. In the lowest place, a catchment basin is arranged, from where it can be discharged into storm sewers or used for irrigation. Small amounts of water will simply evaporate.
Drainage cottage plot with their own hands
The system of drainage in the country can be done independently. Consider how to properly build a closed-type drainage system. To begin, you will need preparatory design work. The project should be noted:
- the location of all drainage channels;
- direction of water flow;
- the location of the vertical elements - wells;
- the depth of the drainage pipes - drains.
In order for the system to effectively drain water, you need to carefully calculate the slope of the pipes. The rule is this: the minimum slope is one centimeter per linear meter.
After completing the design work, you need to think over and prepare the necessary tools and supplies. For drainage installation you will need:
- perforated pipes of suitable diameter;
- couplings and fittings for their connection;
- drainage wells;
Drainage pipes can be asbestos-cement, ceramic, polymeric or made of porous materials - claydite glass, plastic concrete. The water in them seeps through the pores.
Prepare the necessary tools in advance: shovels, wheelbarrows for the ground, hacksaw, building level. Also collect rubble and sand.
Having prepared everything you need, you can proceed to the main work. First you need to mark on the site the location of all elements of the system. Then earthworks will follow - you need to dig trenches around the perimeter of the site. Depth should be at least 70 cm, width - about half a meter. From time to time you need to check the magnitude of the slope. Next, the auxiliary trenches are excavated and led to the wells.
The bottom of all the trenches need to fall asleep with sand and rammed, then lay geotextiles. Its edges should go on the sides of the trenches. Next, fill the rubble, lay pipes on top of it with drainage holes down. The pipes are covered with a second layer of rubble and the edges of the geofabric are wrapped. The result should be a construction that looks like a roll. Layers of sand, rubble and geofabric will prevent the entire system from being silted up quickly, allowing water to pass freely through all strata.
Drainage wells are installed at the pipe joints. They have a collapsible design and are designed for inspecting the system and cleaning it. Installed wells slightly below the level of pipes. From above the wells are closed with removable covers.
After the laying of pipes and the installation of wells, it is necessary to install the main reservoir - the collector well. Put it at the bottom of the site. It can be made of reinforced concrete rings or buy ready-made plastic. Water from the collector should flow into the reservoir or storm sewer. It can also be used for watering.
After installing all the elements of the drainage system and check its performance, you can do it backfilling. Pipes can be hidden completely, covered with earth and overlaid with turf. At this place you can later plant flowers or garden crops. You can fill the pipes with marble chips, turning them into an element of landscape design. It is advisable not to cover well covers for regular inspection and cleaning.
The drainage system is usually combined with a drainage system from the roof of the house. To do this, the drainpipe is directed along a special gutter to the nearest drainage well or a drain is installed. He, like the well, has a removable cover for cleaning debris that can clog the system.